Visa applications of Non-EU candidates are submitted to the Polish consulate in the country of residence of the candidate. You will need to include additional documents in your visa application, such as your passport photo, documents justifying the purpose of your visit or confirming that you have enough resources to support yourself during your stay. More information can be found on the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs website.
After admission you should apply for a long-stay Polish national visa (marked with a D symbol). Such visas are issued for a period no longer than a year.